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The steel structure in factory construction

10-15-2021

The longevity and durability of a prefabricated building or factory depend significantly on the project’s structure. It must be solid and carefully calculated to ensure long-term quality. In the article below, BMB Steel will introduce information about typical steel structures used in factory construction.

1. What is the steel structure?

The role of the structure is similar to a pillar - the main bearing part of the whole building. In construction, the structure will be divided into components, and they are connected together to form the frame of the work, such as floors, beams, columns, walls, and foundations...

Kết cấu thép là gì

Steel is made from an alloy whose main composition is iron (Fe), with carbon©. Carbon accounts for 2.14% by weight. Steel is a material with high strength, durability, and low ductility. Thus, it is preferred in construction. The outstanding features of steel are light-weight, good force resistance, easy assembly conveniently.

Therefore, a steel structure is a type of structure made of high-strength steel material. Primarily, steel structures are used in large-scale constructions such as factories, companies, etc.

2. Main types of steel structure in construction

Phân loại kết cấu thép

2.1 Frame structure: Beams and columns

The frame structure consists of beams and columns. In which the beam transfers the load from the floor to the roof and columns. It can be up to 18cm in size and range from 3m - 9m. Steel beams connect beams to beams or beams to columns.

2.2 Grid structure: mesh or dome structure

In the form of a mesh structure, the steel materials are assembled to create a grid shape. The grid roof creates the dome shape. This structure is often used in the design of large span buildings to make dome greenhouses for agricultural or industrial production activities.

2.3 Prestressed structures

In this construction structure, builders will use high-strength steel wire to place concrete structures. If an impact causes the steel cable to be stretched, it will reverse to resist the force from external influences.

2.4 Beam bridge

In large-scale factory projects with great production lines, beam bridges are designed to limit laborers for fast and light transportation. The beam bridge is installed with a loader crane. We can also use two pillars to install the beam bridge.

2.5 Cable-stayed bridge

The cable-stayed bridge in the industrial factory is used to be anchored on the pylons of the roof. The cables will be connected at a pillar point of the building and parallelly connected down to the bridge deck with the tower shape in the form of a harp.

2.6 Truss structure: bar or truss

The truss structure consists of linked steel bars, which gather together and form knots. Bolts, rivets, or welding connect the rods. 

2.7 Arch Bridge

The arch bridge steel structure has an abutment at the end of each side. The steel frame has a dome shape. The bridge’s weight and the load will be converted into a force system that is pushed horizontally and transferred to the two sides of the abutment.

2.8 Arch architecture 

The arch steel structure has a long-span structure, so it is very suitable for buildings such as stadiums or factories. This structure consists of three main bars linked together in a zigzag pattern. It is used with round and galvanized steel tubes.

2.9 Suspension bridge

This structure is built with many horizontal or diagonal steel bars. The main components are the tower steel frame, slings, main cables and anchors, and the road surface. The main cable part is the supportive point to hang the anchor cables, connect and support the bridge deck. The main cable is parallelly on both sides of the bridge deck. It is connected to the top of the bridge's tower frame.

2.10 Truss bridge: truss structure

A Truss bridge is constructed with various steel frames and parallel frame borders, polygonal or parabolic edges. The bars on the bridge are connected to each other by rivets or anchor bolts. The ground surface is crossed, horizontal steel bars, which are made with reinforced concrete material.

3. Steel structure manufacturing process

Quy trình gia công kết cấu thép

Step 1: Select raw materials

Step 2: Check the material

Step 3: CNC and hydraulic cutting

Step 4: Manual welding

Step 5: Automatic welding

Step 6: Hydraulic breaker

Step 7: Straighten the components

Step 8: Grinding

Step 9: Non-destructive welding test

Step 10: Painting

Step 11: Clean and prepare the surface

Step 12: Complete and transport to the construction site

4. Comparison of the steel structure and other structures in construction

Apart from steel, concrete is also used in building construction. Each type of structure has its own advantages and disadvantages. Below, BMB Steel will share with you a comparison table:

Category

Concrete structure

Steel structure

Durability

Longer than the steel structure

The steel structure is prone to be damaged by the influences of weather and rust 

Antiseismic ability

The concrete structure is fragile, so it is less earthquake resistant.

More effective than concrete structure in earthquake resistance.

Load

Worse than the steel structure

Good-bearing capacity

Value of copper scrap

No

Yes

Weight

Heavier than steel 

60% lighter than concrete

Foundation

The foundation must be solid enough to bear the load

Can be done without foundation

Time construction

It often takes 28 days at least before putting it into use.

About 7 - 14 days

Laborers requirements

Require laborers without many technical skills

Require laborers with technical skills

Cost

Lower

Higher

Components

Different joints are required in concrete structures

Steel components are connected by using rivets, welding, nuts, bolts, etc.

5. When should we choose a steel structure in construction?

The steel structure in factory construction has many advantages. Some of the remarkable  ones are:

  • The steel structure is effective in distributing load for the building.
  • Steel materials are easy to manufacture and fabricate
  • The steel structure is diverse, with both aesthetics and optimal functions for each construction project
  • Save the material cost
  • Easy to construct and easy acceptance the project
  • Less impact on the environment than other structures
  • Suitable for many terrains, this structure does not require a high foundation like concrete.

For the above reasons, when building warehouses or pre-engineered steel factories, people often choose steel structures to ensure quality and durability.

The article above is all about steel structure in factory construction. Hopefully, construction owners and contractors can compare to choose the right solution for their projects.

 

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